Glossary of terms

Technical terms simply explained

“M” internationally used abbreviation for absorptive primary color magenta red, thus also for the technical printing process color magenta. In large-format inkjet printing systems, the abbreviation Mm means the support of magenta with “light magenta” to enlarge the color space.

M0/M1/M2/M3 measuring mode settings in accordance with ISO 13655, which are partly or fully realized in reflectedlight color densitometers.

MacAdam’s ellipses ellipses de MacAdam threshold ellipses that characterize the experimentally determined acceptances of just noticeable differences (JND, seuil de différenciation visuelle) around selected chromaticity coordinates in the CIE chromaticity chart CIExyY. These experiments were and are the basis for the creation of perceptually equidistant color systems like CIEUCS or CIELAB, in that these ellipses are transformed into equally large circles. This means that if the customer and the printing service  provider can agree on tolerances, it can be assumed that one single Delta E tolerance value applies for the entire CIELAB color space.

M0 “Color measuring mode A” spectral luminance factor without polarization filter under a light source that simulates standard illuminant A (gas lamps or LEDs, 2856 ± 100 K, from 420 to at least 700 nm)

M1 “Color measuring mode D50” spectral luminance factor without polarization filter under a light source that simulates standard illuminant D50 with correct UV component < 400 nm (theoretically F8 fluorescent lamp, in practice only LEDs incl. UV LEDs, 5003 ± 100 K, under 380 to at least 700 nm)

M2 “Color measuring mode UV Cut” spectral luminance factor without polarization filter under a light source that simulates any standard illuminant without UV component (gas lamps with UV cut-off filter < 400 nm or LEDs without UV LED, from 420 to at least 700 nm)

M3 “Measurement with polarization filter” spectral absorption degree (with RGB filters) or spectral lumi – nance factor (with spectral scanning head) with polarization filter pair (in radiated and in reflected light, crossing each other) under a light source that simulates any standard illuminant (gas lamp or LEDs, from 420 to at least 700 nm). The physical simulation of D50 (in M1) was first realized in a hand-held measuring device in the Konica Minolta FD-5/-7; the LED device simulates a total of 16 spectra. M2 (UV Cut), through the comparison with a mode with UV component (M0/A or M1/D50 – depending on the selected illuminant in M2), allows the measurement of the effect of  optical brighteners for suitably high-quality ICC profiles. M3 is suitable not only for measuring color density (absorption under polarization filter) but also for color measurement of wide gamut inks, effect pigment inks and for printing ink recipes (remission under polarization filter). The printshop spectrodensitometers of Techkon automatically move the polarization filter in or out when the mode is changed. In this field of application, Techkon evaluates the effect of optical brighteners through empirical algorithms.

macula of retinamacula lutea macula lutea, tache jaune area of the retina which has the highest density of receptors and which has a great influence on the color perception of the 2° standard observer. In the inside of the macula of retina there is also the fovea, the area of the retina with the sharpest vision. The macula of retina must not be  confused with the blind spot (entrance of the optic nerve in the retina, an area without receptors), but which influences the color perception of the 10° standard observer.

Manufacturer Registry registre de fabricants abbreviations and identification numbers on the basis of which the profile and software commentaries of the ICC member companies are identifiable, e.g. ADBE-41444245 (Adobe), APPL-4150504C (Apple),  bICC-62494343 (basICColor), EPSO-4550534F (Epson), NEC-4E454320 (NEC) etc.

mask masque in image processing and graphics programs, an area determined by its outer line which isolates image areas according to their shape, whereby the form is  shown by greater color differences at the edges of the object. The selected areas can be saved as separate clipping paths or (insofar as the graphics file format has an alpha channel) as integrated transparency instructions. In the masked areas, manipulations like color corrections, blurring / focusing, redyeing, detaching etc. can be carried out.

matt, dull, depolished mat property of non-shiny surfaces which favor the diffuse eflection and are thus preferred for color-matching booths, measuring standards (matt white) and the internals of measuring devices.

MCS, multi-color separation hifi color process developed and patented by eder gmbh, Ostfildern (D) (, in which not only the secondary colors RGB but also their respective neighbors to the process colors CMY are available as pure special colors. The total of 12 hues can be screened as independent color separation files/prints, whereby no more than 3 special hues are usually included as CMYK supplements.

MDB, minimally distinct border seuil de différenciation during color matching, a limit value at which a structural difference can just be perceived between the reference and the sample; minimum distinction = maximum blur.

measurement aperture diaphragme opening through which optical measuring devices record the measured values, and also illuminate the sample when measurements are taken with reflected light. The larger the diameter, the more representative the value basis. Such an integral measuring principle is especially practical when the measured object is not homogeneous, e.g. a screened surface. For particularly narrow ink control strips in rotary offset printing, Techkon, for example, also offers small or even  slit-shaped apertures for its spectrodensitometers.

measuring geometry angle relation between radiated measured light (in) and observed or measured direction (out); freedom from gloss 45°:0° or 0°:45°, gloss in=out, non-homo – geneous surfaces diffuse:0° or diffuse:8° (each with or without gloss trap), angle dependence in=constant:out=variable.

mesopic vision vision mésopique/crepusculaire simultaneous activity of the two types of retinal receptors (rods and cones) in the luminance range of 0.1 and 30 cd/m².

metal decorating inks encres pour impression sur métal sheet-fed offset inks used for printing metal plates up to 0.5 mm thickness; drying mechanism either radical UV-curing
(basis: acrylates) or solvent evaporating-burning in (basis: oil-based alkyds or other  modified polyesters); KBA-MetalPrint is the only supplier of metal printing systems up to 8 colors.

metallic inks encres métalliques printing inks to which metallic pigments have been added to achieve a metallic gloss effect. Such pigments are brass-based “rich gold”, “rich pale gold”, “pale gold”, “copper” as well as aluminium-based for gold an poor aluminium for silver. Besides gold and silver printing inks, Pantone metallic hues are also on offer.

metamerism métamérisme conditional equality of colors; effect according to which two or more samples happen to look the same under a reference illuminant and which differ in color, after the change in illuminant on account of their spectral composition. The metamerism index, which can be illustrated with a spectrodensitometer, e.g. Techkon SpectroDens, through two individual measurements, is specified using the CIELAB color difference formula in ΔE*ab for D50 vis-à-vis D65. All illuminant pairs are available in color-matching booths for visually examinable metamerism effects.

Microsoft ICM2-WCS, Image Color Management v2 – >Windows Color System color management architecture introduced gradually by Microsoft (Longhorn) and Canon (Kuyanos CMM) (Color Infrastructure and Translation Engine, CITE), which can process ICC v4 profilers in the formats .icc and .icm. Always proceeding from the sRGB working color space (sRGBColorSpaceProfile.icm), it uses the various XML profile schemes (described as “display conditions” in the German Windows version): – generic device groups (Color Device Model Profiles, .cdmp) with characterization data for CRT and LCD monitors, scanners, digital photography, projectors, RGB and CMYK output systems as well as virtual sRGB device models (wsRGB.cdmp, wcsRGB.cdmp); – color appearance  models (color appearance model profiles using CIECAM02) for converting from or and other white points; – color adjustment regulations (Gamut Map Model Pro – files) with the designations Photo.gmmp (perceptible/ photographic),  roofing.gmmp (absolutely colorimetric), MediaSim.gmmp (relatively colorimetric) and Graphics.gmmp (maintains saturation).

migration migration transition of molecular components on the one hand from the printing ink into the packaging material (desired) and possibly into the package contents (undesired), on the other hand from the package contents into the packaging material (undesired) or even into the printing ink layer (undesired); remedies: low-migration printing inks, trueness vis-à-vis packaging materials, barriers in the packaging matemigration rial, avoid migration through set-off in piles and through contact with pressroom chemicals (KBA: “low-migration press”).

Mired, micro-reciprocal degree “Millionth reciprocal degree” of the Kelvin numerical system value of the most similar color temperatures of light sources, calculated from the hundred thousandth reciprocal of the Kelvin system; for CIE standard illuminant D50, this means: 1000000 / 5000 K = 200 Mired – see Table C-2 “Color temperature” on page 32.

moisture-set, steam-set: long grain rotary printing process (letterset, offset) with printing inks which harden through the effect of water vapor, but which remain printable at normal humidity or which do not soften after film formation; application: folding box production for foodstuffs in America and China.

monitoring of quality surveillance de la qualité permanent systematic recording (protocoling), observing and monitoring of devices and processes using technical aids. The real-time and long-term monitoring of the calibration status of all process components as an image of the true and not only simulated quality level is a selection criterion that is becoming more and more important for quality-oriented purchasers of printed matter. The Internet-based solution iQIP by impakt medien offers comprehensive and at the same time detailed query options.

monochromatic monochromatique property of light sources that emit only one single  wavelength (e.g. laser, sodium-vapor lamp).

monochromator, spectral analyzer monochromateur component in every spectrophotometer/spectrodensitometer which divides up the luminous flux of the  measured light into its chromatic intensity components; 2 construction types: lattice (dispersion through diffraction, e.g. Techkon scanning head), prism (dispersion through refraction; disadvantage: greater weakening losses)

monochrome, black and white achrome, noir et blanc property of pixel graphics files that have only one grayscale channel (brightness, “black and white”); if the file in question is a TIFF file, it is possible to recolor the image file when it is being output.

multicolor printing impression polychrome/en plusieurs couleurs printing process with four and more separation colors.

Munsell Book of Color Atlas/nuancier colorimétrique de Munsell color ordering system common in the USA and the UK (Munsell scale,  1915/1929); today 1500 matt and 1300 glossy nuances of color; each of the 40 plates  into which the color sample is pushed in tabs contains nuances of a hue (Munsell Hue,  Mn. H), which differ vertically in their brightness (Munsell Value, Mn. V 0 to 10) and  horizontally in their chromaticness (Munsell Chroma, Mn. C 0 to 16).